Standards: Broad learning statements that describe what students should know and be able to do based on content and grade level.
Learning Targets: Specific objectives for describing expected student outcomes within the broadly stated standard.
Target-Based Grading (TBG): Grading is based on the student’s proficiency of each learning target. The learning target may include multiple activities and learning experiences that occur inside and outside of the classroom. These classroom activities and homework (formative assessments or activities used to formulate a decision) are not calculated into the grade. This is a time where learners are not punished for lack of knowledge but rather allowed to practice. Once a summative assessment is given, if a student does not meet the proficiency level, they will have an opportunity to practice more or receive intervention and reassess to show proficiency.
Standards-Based Grade Reporting: The summative scores of the learning targets are combined to calculate a standard grade. The final grade of a course is an accumulation of all of the standards within that course. This would be a summative grade based on the student’s proficiency and target based grading results.
Formative Assessments: (homework, quizzes, classroom work) occur when the skill is being developed. This is the action of learning and practice.
Summative Assessments: (tests, projects where students show evidence that they have an understanding of the skill) is a check of the student's proficiency on the learning target for a grade.
Proficiency Scale: A proficiency scale is intended to clarify a progression of learning. The scale clearly indicates the skills that students must demonstrate in order to be considered proficient on a standard.